Botulinum toxin nikotin patkány


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Conventions[ edit ] The LD50 botulinum toxin nikotin patkány usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms suitable for botulinummicrogramsor grams suitable for paracetamol hpv svájci vakcina kilogram.

Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass.

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For substances in the environment, such as poisonous vapors or substances in water that are toxic to fish, the concentration in the environment per cubic metre or per litre is used, giving a value of LC But in this case, the exposure time is important see below.

However, this also means that LD50 is not the lethal dose for all subjects; some may be killed by much less, while others survive doses far higher than the Botulinum toxin nikotin patkány For this reason, LD50 figures are often qualified with the mode of administration, e.

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These measures are used more commonly within radiation health physicsas survival beyond 60 days usually results in recovery. A comparable measurement is LCt50, which relates to lethal dosage from exposure, where C is concentration and t is time.

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ICt50 is the dose that will cause incapacitation rather than death. These measures are commonly used to indicate the comparative efficacy of chemical warfare agents, and dosages are typically qualified by rates of breathing e.

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Some chemicals, such as hydrogen cyanideare rapidly detoxified by the human body, and do not follow Haber's law. So, in these cases, the lethal concentration may be given simply as LC50 and qualified by a duration of exposure e.

Median lethal dose

The Material Safety Data Sheets for toxic substances frequently use this form of the term even if the substance does follow Haber's law. For disease-causing organisms, there is also a measure known as the median infective dose and dosage.

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The median infective dose ID50 is the number of organisms received by a person or test animal qualified by the route of administration e. Because of the difficulties in counting actual organisms botulinum toxin nikotin patkány a dose, infective doses may be expressed in terms of biological assay, such as the number of LD50's to some test animal.

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In biological warfare infective dosage is the number of infective doses per cubic metre of air times the number of minutes of exposure e. Limitation[ edit ] As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration.

For example, chocolate, comparatively harmless to humans, is known to be toxic to many animals. When used to test venom from venomous creatures, such as snakesLD50 results may be misleading due to the physiological differences between mice, rats, and humans.

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Many venomous snakes are specialized predators on mice, and their venom may be adapted specifically to incapacitate mice; and mongooses may be exceptionally resistant. While most mammals have a very similar physiology, LD50 results may or may not have equal bearing upon every mammal species, such as humans, etc.

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Examples[ edit ] Note: Comparing substances especially drugs to each other by LD50 can be misleading in many cases due in part to differences in effective dose ED Therefore, it is more useful to compare such substances by therapeutic indexwhich is simply the ratio of LD50 to ED